What is ACNE ?

It is a skin condition commonly seen in early adulthood in both the sexes. Acne occurs when pores on the skin surface get clogged or blocked.

These tiny pores are connected to hair follicles and along with hair follicles the sebaceous gland is present which produce sebum.

The role of sebaceous gland is of great importance. They  secrete oil like substance, which lubricate the skin and  also protect the skin from harsh rays of sun and other toxic substances.

Due to some underlying reasons when sebaceous gland secrete excess oil and hair follicles get blocked  or clogged due to dirt bacteria, debris which further results in acne formation , white heads or blackheads.

There are various factors for excess formation of sebum.

  • It is due to hormonal imbalance especially at time of puberty and also related to pathological condition affecting hormones of body.
  •  Acne is mostly related to puberty  but can occurs  at any age. The sites on which acne mostly develop is on face, neck, back , chest due to presence of more sebaceous glands on this area.
  • Acne is not serious life threatening issue, but its bother some  for youngsters as its gives a very unhealthy and unclean image of face. So proper treatment is required to eradicate the root cause of disease.
  • Dietery Factors:-  Excess intake of fat or oil rich diet.
  • Stress
  • Lack of sleep


Acne is localized skin inflammation as results of over activity of oil gland that is sebaceous glands at the base of specialized hair follicles.

Acne occurs when sebaceous glands secrete excess sebum and results in clogging of pores due to various reasons. Generally sebum is secreted along with hair shaft through opening of skin pore.

When due to various reasons the oil glands are hyperactive in their secretions, the oil inside follicle combine with dead skin cell and from soft plug type of formation.

If that soft plug become infected with bacteria that results in inflammation and cause follicle  wall to buldge  and called as pimples or acne.

Acne are more common in puberty ages or young ages between 12-28 years, but may occur at any age and equally in both sexes.


Acne can be classified into two main categories

  • NON-Inflammatory acne

  • Inflammatory acne

NON- Inflammatory acne again divided into two types

  • Black heads

  • White heads

Inflammatory acne divided into four types

  • Papules

  • Pustules

  • Nodules

  • Cysts


Black heads

They are black in colour and are clearly visible on the surface of skin. They generally develop          when pore is clogged with sebum and remnants of dead skin.

The pore remains open from upper surface and lower surface remains clogged.

White heads

They are miniature and mild form of acne and they are not clearly visible on the skin.

The white heads also develop when pore is clogged with sebum, remnants of dead skin and debris but white heads from upper surface doesn’t remain open but they are covered with fine layer of skin which appears to be white on its surface.


They are type of acne that appears to be like small bumps on the skin surface.

Papules formation occurs when pores are clogged with sebum, remnants of dead skin, debris and this results in inflammation of that affected area and that inflammation affects the walls of pores and results in bump formation that appears red and painful to touch.


pustules are similar to papules. They are clearly visible on the skin. They are generally red in colour and have pus filled or upper surface and they looks yellow or white in colour they are also painful to touch.


They are larger than papules and pustules and clearly visible on surface of skin. They are hard to touch, painful and deep seated in the skin and tendency to form scar easily if left untreated.


They develop when pores are clogged by excess sebum, debris, skin remnants , bacterial growth. The cysts are very much deep within skin more than nodules.

They are more than in a size that of nodules appears like large cyst. They are painful, filled with pus and likely to cause scar if left untreated.


  • Abnormal secretion of hormones especially androgens. The sebaceous glands are more sensitive to this type of hormone and results in hyperactivity of glands causes blockage of pores and results in bacterial Infection .
  • Stress:- Remains constantly in stressful condition for long periods, pressured life style, suppression of emotions results in anger, anxiety that affects the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and resulting in hormonal imbalance that leads to skin complication like acne.
  • Faulty life style:- sedentary life style, no physical activity, not taking meals at proper fixed times ,eating unhealthy food, insomnia these all affect the hormonal axis of body leads to acne formation as secondary affects.
  • Medicines:- Some medication like corticosteroids, hormone therapies, birth control pills can lead to development of acne.
  • Menstrual cycle:- During different phases of menstrual cycle the hormones fluctuates in female body results in acne and acne also develops in pregnancy.
  • Cosmetics :- They play great role in formation of acne due to clogging pores and sometime the chemical irritants present in the cosmetics results in acne or possible due to allergy towards some ingredients in cosmetic products used that leads to serious skin issue.
  • Hygiene :- Proper cleansing of face should be there so that pores remain unclogged. The propionibacterium takes sebum as nutrient turn it into fatty acids that activate inflammation in nearby skin cells. More the sebum, more will be the bacterial growth results inflammation and acne develops.


  • Blood test for hormonal assessment especially androgens hormones.
  • Test for micro organism present at site of infection usually swab or scarping from acne site is done to reveal pathogen.
  • Pelvic ultrasound for assessment in ovarian cyst or other pelvic mass present.
  • Full blood count if patient is unwell.
  • Liver function test is to be done in the patient having drug history of antibiotics or isotretinion


  • Berberisaquifolium
  • Radium bromide
  • Arnica
  • Antimoniumcrudum
  • Pulsatilla
  • Sulphur
  • Kali bromatum
  • Nat – mur
  • Calc-sulph
  • Hepar-sulf


One Response so far.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *